ILS stands for instrument landing system. It is a directional system that helps pilots to land their airplanes on the runway properly. ILS Antenna is a type of system that helps a pilot to land on the runway safely. This antenna has a combination of radio signals to get a safe landing of an airplane.
This antenna is very useful for daily flights. It works even in harsh weather to get precise visibility for landing an aircraft. This blog explains everything about the Instrument Landing System, its process of working, benefits, and other things.
How does the ILS antenna work?
The instrument Landing system was invented in the year 1929 to guide pilots to land airplanes safely in poor visibility conditions. This ILS Yagi Antenna provides horizontal, vertical, altitude, and course guidance for the safe landing of an airplane. This antenna has 2 radio transmitter beams for the landing approach.
ILS contains a localizer, marker beacons, and a glide path. These components are situated at the aircraft’s nose. Localizer and glides path help to transmit and receive signals to the ILS indicator situated in the cockpit.
The ground localizer transmits a VHF signal in the opposite direction of the runway to guide the aircraft horizontally. UHF signal is transmitted by glide slop antenna vertically. These UHF signals help aircraft land safely.
Additionally, these signals activate vertical and horizontal needles of ILS. Pilots can run aircraft safely in every direction with the help of these needles. If needles are placed in the center point, the pilot can land an airplane on the runway centerline.
Different components of the Instrument Landing System
ILS Directional Antenna contains components of 2 categories. They are airborne equipment and Ground Installation. The components of ground installation contain glide path, localizer, marker beacons, approach light system, DME, and runway visual range. Let us have a look at each of these components in detail:
Localizer is the major component of ILS that gives lateral guidance. In a localizer, the transmitter and antenna are situated at the centerline at the opposite end of the centerline.
- Glide slope
Glide slope gives vertical guidance to pilots. This slope is located 750 to 1250 feet down to the runway from the threshold.
- Marker beacons (MB)
Marker beacons are important components of the ILS antenna. They are divided into 2 kinds namely Outer Marker and Middle Marker.
- Middle Marker or MM
The middle marker is installed at a distance of 0.5 to 0.8 NM from the threshold on the runway’s centerline.
- Outer Marker or OM
The outer Marker is situated at a distance of 3 to 6 NM from the threshold at 250 feet of the centerline of the runway. This component helps the pilot to keep a fixed position on the localizer. Besides, OM also offers height, distance, and functioning of equipment to check the final and intermediate approach of aircraft.
- Distance Measuring Instrument or DME
Distance Measuring Instrument is situated with a glide path to give a slant distance to aircraft for touchdown point.
- Runway visual range
The pilot must observe visual aids before landing at a distance height or missed approach point. Airborne ILS equipment has 2 kinds of equipment namely:
- a. Localizer or LLZ and Glide path are situated at the aircraft’s nose. The aircraft indicator is located in the cockpit.
- b. Marker beacons antennas and indicators are located inside the cockpit.
- Approach Lighting system
Many lighting systems in instrument landing systems help pilots to land aircraft safely. These lighting systems include Sequenced Flash Lighting, Centerline Lights, Approach Lighting system, and Touchdown Zone Lighting.
Major benefits of the Instrument Landing system
ILS or Instrument Landing system antenna helps pilots to land aircraft safely on the runway. Besides, it also helps pilots in several other ways such as:
- Many airlines can land their aircraft safely on the runway. This antenna protects passengers from accidents and major mishaps.
- ILS Omni Antenna helps to increase the safety of passengers during a journey. It also helps to know situational awareness.
- This antenna helps in increasing accuracy while landing an airplane on the runway.
- It helps to get better visibility even in harsh climatic conditions. This antenna helps aircraft land safely during heavy monsoons or snowy weather.
- Pilots will receive guidance on how to land aircraft horizontally and vertically and in all other directions.
- Pilots will get a precise final approach and runway touchdown approach for the aircraft.
- ILS Glide Slope Antenna helps to reduce accidents of aircraft during harsh climatic conditions.
ILS antenna is one of the most vital components of aircraft. It works with the help of signals and guides pilots in landing aircraft in every direction. This antenna will increase the safety of pilots, crew, and passengers in the aircraft.